Heatstroke, exhaustion, motion sickness, insect bites, and having to be escorted off a mountain by gendarmes were just a few of the privations I suffered while researching my latest novel ISLAND ON FIRE on the island of Martinique. To be blunt, conditions were bad—constant 100° temperatures and 99% humidity—but the results MORE than made up for the hardships. What I discovered while exploring the destroyed city of St. Pierre were pieces of the past, evidence of lives suddenly cut short by the cataclysmic eruption of Mount Pelée on May 8th, 1902: a button, shards of pottery, broken porcelain, pieces of exploded bottles, the remnants of a flower pot, a destroyed tea set. The past comes back to life in a terrifying fashion in St. Pierre, Martinique.
|An old button dug up near the Rue Levassor made of natural material, either horn, ivory, bone, or possibly even wood, carved from the tagua nut which was used extensively until WWI.|
Until May 8th 1902 St. Pierre,
Martinique was the most important cultural and administrative city in the
French Antilles. It was completely destroyed when Mont Pelée erupted at
approximately 8 am that morning, killing 30,000 people in 5 minutes. Today the
city has been largely reclaimed, but it will never have the same vibrancy as it
had during the turn of the last century.
|St. Pierre today. Photo by Zinneke (from Wikimedia)|
As I unearthed each item I was well aware that they once belonged to an individual, and that the object played some part in that person’s life. That's the poignancy of discovering the past: you have the chance to connect with someone who lived centuries ago and who died by a catastrophic act of nature. When I discovered that button or those shards of pottery, I was perhaps the first person in over 100 years to touch these items. That's sad given the fate of the people of St. Pierre. When they died they had no way of telling future generations their story. I consider that my mission. I went to St. Pierre in order to tell their story.
I call St. Pierre "the Pompeii of the Americas"
because it resembles Pompeii by the cataclysmic nature in which the city was blotted
off the face of the earth. Almost like an atomic bomb. The city and all its
inhabitants were decimated by the release of the volcano's pyroclastic flows:
the theater, the two cathedrals, the fort, the barracks, the jail, the
hospital, the warehouses, the chamber of commerce, the lighthouses, the villas,
the hotels, the fashionable stores, everything was reduced to rubble in the
span of 5 minutes. It wasn't even a question of the citizens outrunning the
lava, with the pyroclastic flows traveling at a rate of 500 mph (700 km/hr) and
at temperatures of 1,830 degrees F (1000 degrees C) the people were asphyxiated
immediately and incinerated within seconds. There was no chance of escape. Also
called nuée ardente, a pyroclastic flow is a dense, destructive mass
of very hot ash, lava fragments, and gases ejected explosively from a volcano
and flowing downslope at great speed. It happened so fast, the residents of St.
Pierre had no idea the end would be so violent yet so brief.
|St. Pierre, Martinique before it was destroyed in a volcanic eruption.|
As you meander through the ruins, only a few elements of
the city’s former life are still visible: a few retaining walls, spigots,
iron gates, the remains of fountains and staircases.
|The remains of a public fountain located on the Rue Levassor built in 1850.|
|An old spigot is all that remain of a fresh water fountain in the mental asylum.|
The damage was extraordinary, and
what is even more surprising is that the ruins have been left largely untouched
since 1902. The entire town is a vast archaeological dig. While there, I
visited all the major sites where the action of my novel takes place. I would
pick a location and dig down only several inches to see what the earth would
reveal. In every single case I unearthed something from the past. I will take
you on a virtual tour of this extraordinary town that was obliterated by a
volcanic explosion, yet has managed to come back from the dead.
|Shards of tiles that have been buried for more than 100 years.|
|The remains of the city engineer's building, on the Rue Levassor|
|Ruins of the fort cathedral on the north side of town.|
|The isolation chamber in the mental asylum|
|The ruins of the theater, probably what would have been the orchestra pit.|
|Remains of the mental asylum.|
|Inside a destroyed warehouse in the Figuier Quarter|
|On the Pont Roche, the oldest bridge in St. Pierre that is still being used for cars!|
|Standing in the ruins of the fort cathedral. People live in close proximity to the crumbling remains of old St. Pierre, as if having volcanic ruins in one's backyard is the most natural thing in the world.|
|Rue Mont au Ciel, in the fashionable mulatto quarter of St. Pierre. Until the 1990's this passageway was still covered with rubble from the eruption of 1902.|
|The fountain at the entrance of the St. Pierre theater, where the opening scene of my novel takes place.|
|The original cobblestoned Rue Levassor that runs parallel to the Riviere Roxelane, where I found so many artifacts. At the end of this street is where the mental asylum and the Engineering building are located.|
|The ruins of St. Pierre from 1902.|
|The ruins today. The biggest difference between today and then is the growth of new vegetation.|